One other factor that contributes to the flattening of the arch of the foot is tightness of the calf muscles. The calf muscle attaches into the foot by the achilles tendon into the back of the heel. When the calf muscle is tight it limits the movement of the ankle joint. When ankle joint motion is limited by the tightness of the calf muscle it forces the subtalar joint to pronate excessively. Excessive subtalar joint pronation can cause several different problems to occur in the foot. In this instance, it results in excessive tension of the plantar fascia. Now imagine that a structure attached on one end somehow becomes lower than the other identical structure on the other side. On the lower side the rubber bands are suddenly pulling more, tightening their grip. And on the opposing side, those rubber bands are stretching more while simultaneously tightening. Can you see what is happening? Pain can be from inflammation where stresses on the framework cause dysfunction such as joint misalignment, muscle fatigue, spasms, restricted blood flow and disturbed innervation to the muscles. Myofascial trigger points in leg muscles can disrupt the proper function of the foot. Over time, these issues wear down the joints. Orthopedic shoes are the footwear that is very special and designed to cater for the people with various medical and bone abnormalities and conditions of the foot. These shoes are meant to ease the condition being suffered from and to stop it from worsening. Some of these conditions include arthritis, calcaneal spurs, pes planus and hallux valgus. The shoes also address the problems of abnormal shapes and sizes of feet which result in pain when wearing ordinary shoes. The condition may be present at birth (congenital) or develop from wearing short, narrow shoes. Hammer toe also occurs in children who continue to wear shoes they have outgrown. We don’t tend to think of our feet until they exhibit some problem. These trusty, pyramid-shaped stabilizers of the body do their job virtually unthought of as we go about our tasks from day to day. But your whole body knows it when your feet hurt. Their pain is radiated to other areas disturbed by the awkward gait or tentative foot strike of the injured area. To illustrate, let’s consider the common problem of flat feet. The normal foot has nearly the same arch when it is bearing weight and when it is not. Flat feet have various degrees of arch degradation when the body’s weight is on them. Unless you also take care of your foot mechanics, your calluses will just come back. The goal is to minimize focal pressure and rubbing which is a motion associated with Morton's Foot Syndrome, an elevated first metatarsal and over pronation (arch drops and ankle rolls inward when standing and walking). If you prevent your feet from over pronating, your calluses will naturally go away because the skin is not stimulated to protect itself and thicken. Wear proper-fitting shoes, check your feet regularly and keep them moving. Fungus thrives in warm, moist areas, so if you get a fungus infection, treat it immediately. Calluses and corns are areas of thick, hardened, dead skin. They form to protect the skin and structures under the skin from pressure, friction, and injury. They may appear grayish or yellowish, be less sensitive to the touch than surrounding skin, and feel bumpy. Calluses on the hands and feet of an active person are normal. Calluses and corns become a problem when they grow large enough to cause pain. If you notice that your toe looks odd or hurts, talk to your doctor. You may be able fix your toe with home treatment. If you do not treat your toe right away, you are more likely to need surgery. Infections in the treatment of corns on toes can be avoided by ever so gently scraping the affected area daily, making sure that the live skin underneath is not chafed, then using a topical disinfectant. All equipment used in corn removal must be sterilized. It is important to sterilize all equipment used in corn removal. A Pedi-egg, for instance, can accumulate a large amount of dead skin cells once used. This will cause bacteria to multiply. Today corns are treated with a variety of preparations. Some are caustic agents that are applied topically and eat into the skin layer. To begin treating the corn, you will need to treat the root of the problem. Avoid wearing shoes that put too much pressure on your toes and cause discomfort. Once you have a comfy pair of shoes, you can treat the corn with a corn pad. This will prevent pressure on the corn and will reduce irritation. Corn pads should be changed regularly or as recommended by the manufacturer of the pad. Eventually, the corn will become smaller until it fades completely. Calluses appear gradually as a result of repeated pressure and irritation. In general, calluses are caused from wearing the wrong type of shoes or no shoes at all. Nail fungus is another common problem that can make feet unattractive. The dark, moist surroundings created by shoes and stockings make the feet susceptible to fungal infection, which may cause the nail to thicken and become yellow or brownish. Oral and topical medications sometimes eliminate a fungus, but it can return if the medication is discontinued. Curing a fungal infection may require the permanent removal of the nail. After surgery to permanently remove the nail plate, the body generates a hardened skin covering the sensitive nail bed. When this covering has developed, normal activities can be resumed and women can use nail polish on the area.